Controlling Mildew on Squash

If you should get mildew on your squash leaves, trim all affected leaves from the plant and do one of the following.

Spray the non affected leaves (after trimming bad leaves) with 1 tablespoon of wettable sulfur in 1 gallon of water, every two weeks. And spray in the evening so that the sulfur won’t burn the leaves. Most leaves need to cool off before you spray anything on them. Spraying on hot leaves might saute them. Be sure that you buy wettable sulfur NOT soil sulfur.

Another cure is to merely buy a gallon of skim (non fat) milk and spray it on the squash leaves. Follow the directions above for time of day and trimming all bad leaves off before spraying. You can also mix up your own non fat milk by using one part dry skim milk with 9 parts of water.

Just wanted to pass this along to those that are plagued with mildew and we here on the Southern California coast are and we deal with it constantly.


Organic Controls for Downy Mildew

A.  You can use non fat (skim) milk for your mildew. Spray it on in the cool of the day when your leaves have cooled down from the day’s sunshine. I just buy a half gallon of it when I need it. If you plan to use the dry non fat milk, the formula for that is one part skim milk powder to nine parts of water. I would trim all mildewed leaves off of the plant before I spray. Otherwise, the condition will continue to manifest itself since it is spread by spores.

Also good for squash leaves and cucumbers but remove bad leaves before you spray. Treat your plants every 10 days to two weeks. Also after every rainfall.

Mildew on tomatoes? Mix 2 tablespoons of wettable sulfur powder(use
micronized so that it will flow) in 1 gallon of water and spray the leaves
until run off. Repeat every two weeks. When watering you veggies, never overhead water. This spreads disease and also washes off any control spray that you have put on your plants. ie. the non fat milk or sulfur.

Sulfur is considered organic. You must use precautions when using it because, if inhaled, it becomes sulfuric acid in your lungs and will burn. So, just to be sure, use a mask, goggles, gloves. This seems like over kill but better safe than sorry. Sulfur does a very good job on keeping tomatoes mildew and russet mite free.

You can go to Google and research a product called Thiolux which is a micronized wettable sulfur. I believe Ortho also makes a wettable sulfur called Flowtox.


Pesticide Levels in Our Food Supply – Are We In Danger?

Q.  Much is said lately about the dangers we face from pesticides in our foods.  And “organically grown” foods grown (hopefully) without any use of pesticides are sold for 2 and 3 times the normal price, in order to save us from this great danger.  Is the danger to our health from pesticides used on our vegetables and fruits real?  Or is it, like so many other things today, hyperbole used to create a market for the organic growers and their marketing agents?

A.  Perdue University’s Cooperative Extension Service is among the most highly respected institutions serving the people’s welfare anywhere in the world.  Following are excerpts from their research paper ppp-22 – Pesticides and Food Safety, written by Fred Whitford, Coordinator of Purdue Pesticide Programs, along with Linda Mason, a Post-Harvest Research Entomologist, and Carl Winder, Extension Food Toxicologist from the University of California at Davis.

It turns out that about 1% of our national fresh food supply is randomly tested very extensively by scientists specifically looking for pesticide toxicity.  This is a very high level of testing, and the findings are VERY comforting and reassuring to those of us who are concerned consumers. 

Summarizing the material reported in Pesticides and Food Safety below, our food supply contains about 1/10,000th as much pesticide as would be needed to produce observable side effects, and if we were to eat this food daily for 70 years we would have consumed about 1 percent of the amount needed to produce observable negative health effects.

I therefore recommend we stop making ourselves sick with worry over pesticides in our commercially-grown food supply and give thanks instead for the best and healthiest food in the world. 

1. Scientists from the Environmental Protection Agency begin the evaluation process by determining the highest pesticide dose that can be fed to laboratory animals to cause adverse health effects but not death. This dose is called the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD).

2. The second step in the evaluation process is the selection of the highest pesticide dose that does not cause observable harm or side effects inexperimental animals. This dose level is referred to as the No-ObservableAdverse Effect Level (NOAEL). The NOAEL value can be developed from acute (single incident) or chronic (multiple exposure) studies. The NOAEL is the first safety level.

3. The NOAEL usually is divided by a safety factor of 100 (safety factors range from 10 to 10,000) to take into account individual differences among people and the extrapolation of human health information from animal data. This second safety level is called the Reference Dose (RFD).

4. The RFD generally is expressed in terms of milligrams of a pesticide consumed per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg) per day. It is the amount of a pesticide residue that, if ingested daily over a 70-year lifetime, a human could consume without expecting any health-related problems. It is the RFD that is used as the toxicological indicator when pesticide residues are tested on foods designated for human consumption.

5. Next, EPA scientists determine how much of a particular pesticide residue the average consumer might ingest over a life expectancy of 70 years.

foods are analyzed for pesticide residues after they are in table-ready or final food form. The Total Diet Study yields the best insights into actual pesticide residue exposures and takes into account the reduction of pesticide residues which occurs in the course of growing, handling, shipping, processing, washing, peeling, and cooking. Over the last four years, approximately 55 out of more than 200 pesticides have been detected in the Total Diet Study. The nine residues found frequently in the 1989,1990, and 1991 total diet studies are presented in Table 1. The total consumption of foods containing these residues can then be used to estimate daily intake over a lifetime. For example, malathion was detected in approximately twenty percent of the table-ready foods sampled. The residues found on specific food items were multiplied by the amount of the food consumed. In the malathion example, children between 6 and 11 months, young adults between 14 and 16 years, and older adults between the ages of 60 and 65 consumed an average of 0.1, 0.08, and 0.04 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day, respectively, of this pesticide. Those exposure values were then compared to the RFD criteria established by EPA and the World Health Organization.

The conclusion drawn from the total diet studies is that pesticide residues being detected represent only one percent of the RFD and generally are about 10,000 times lower than the NOAEL. FDA’s monitoring reveals that the “…levels of pesticide residue found in the U.S. food supply are generally below safety limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency.”

Neem Oil as Pesticide/Fungicide

High Humidity causes growth of Fungi,Virus and bacterial diseases. I know that vertical growing (using T- Frames) will help as the produce will not come in contact with the soil. 
Q.  What is the best cultural method to use and possibly the best chemicals to use, in order to contain  the fungal, Viral and bacterial infections and diseases that attack Tomato, Chili Pepper and other Vegetables in the tropics during rainy season. 
A.  Without personal experience I must depend on research, but below is what I’ve found from a site that promotes it.  We teach prevention through proper cultural practices (strong healthy seedlings, no weeds, fast growth, keeping plants off the ground by growing vertically, etc).  Neem Oil is not a true fungicide or pesticide, but acts to prevent those problems.  To the extent Neem Oil is also a preventative measure, and safe to use, we can feel good about its use.

“As a preventative neem is mainly used when problems are just starting to show. What is does is to coat the leaf surface, which in turn prevents the germination of the fungal spores. Neem is effective against rots, mildews, rusts, scab, leafspot and blights.  It works as a barrier not as a fungicide. It makes a great garden spray as a general tonic for your plants and soil. Earthworm populations have been showed to increase with the use of neem as a tonic.

How  do you use neem oil?

“The product is mixed with water at a ratio of 0.05% to 2.0% depending upon the targeted use. You then apply it as a foliar spray keeping it agitated during application to keep it well mixed. It must be used within 8 hours after mixing with the water. It comes with complete instructions.

How safe is it?

“It is non toxic to humans, birds, earthworms or animals. Being an oil it can affect bees if it is actually sprayed on them so it is recommended to use it when bees are not visiting. Once the spray has settled it will not hurt the bees.

“Visit the Neem Association web site to learn about all the amazing properties of neem oil.